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CROP WATCH

By Staff | Jan 1, 2016

Just a few weeks ago quite a few people were worried about the prospects of not having winter. They tried to make us wonder what would be the significance of not having our normal winter.

Based on the cold temps and snow that is falling early this week those fears may have to be dismissed.

It appears that a period of good, old-fashioned cold weather is due to hit us in the next few months. Just be prepared.

Hopefully everyone was able to enjoy at least a few hours off to celebrate Christmas.

Having the holiday fall on Thursday or Friday seems to create a situation where there are consecutive weekends where there are two sets of three- or four-day weekends where you end up having to think what day it actually is.

If you are taking care of cattle, cows, hogs or poultry, every day is the day where you get to take care of them. We went to Mass at 10 a.m. on Friday and then hosted three days of family guests. Hopefully you are able to enjoy the same.

Cropping decisions

We are now in the three-month period where the tough decisions about which inputs should be purchased, which ones to forego and which ones to manage differently than in past years.

So far no one person or group has been able to act like Methuselah and clarify as to how to cut the $100 per acre out of each input program.

About five years ago, we saw a period where the local cost of fertilizer stayed high even after grain prices dropped, basically because fertilizer supplies and prices are dictated way up the supply chain.

In order to protect their normal customers they had locked in product to protect against big cost increases.

That was a costly lesson for many people, but no one could say there was any good way to avoid a repeat of the same from happening.

An appropriate suggestion on fertilizer would be to do what is possible to boost efficiency of each fertilizer element and pay attention to micronutrients.

I continue to look at soil test results where two things are apparent.

One, is that too many lab results are still missing critical information on items such as boron and zinc. The residual phosphorus and potassium levels are high enough to maximize corn and bean yields, but the levels of those two elements are too low to make it happen.

Two, the crop appearance and tissue tests throw up red flags early, but not enough people recognize the problems.

As to seed purchases the Ohio State University listed the yields of corn varieties based on whether they were untraited, possessed a below- or above-ground insect resistance trait, or were stacked. OSU listed the bushels produced per acre for each category, but abstained from giving the dollar comparisons between each.

That seemed strange, but I guess it saves them from being accused of coming to a conclusion as to what leaves farmers with the most money in their pockets.

This information can be found on line at the OSU web site. It does not say if they had to spray any category of corn more often with a fungicide to keep the pathogens from attacking.

Plant nutrition

I got several sets of comments about my mentioning the role of selenium and cobalt in plant growth and health.

Those were appreciated as it showed me that people were paying attention to the article. One grower said he learned that much of north central Iowa’s soil were deficient in Se and as a result his DVM had advised him to give his livestock injections of the mineral right after they were born to boost their immune system and keep them alive and healthy.

This week, let’s consider zinc and boron.

Zinc is used in constructing cells walls that help the plant capture enough sunlight energy to split the CO2 molecule and combine it with H2O to form sugars.

It is crucial in the formation of many of the enzymes as well as being used to construct a number of the amino acids in the plants’ genetic codes. Besides being important is forming such enzymes it also has a structural role in forming proteins.

As to its importance in human health zinc is to form roughly 10 percent of the proteins forming the human genetic code. One Midwest’s micronutrient expert, who also helped author the text book on tissue testing, said if the Zn soil test level is below 3 parts per million the ear size will be reduced and yields will be lowered.

In all my previous instruction following college I had been told that 1.0 ppm was sufficient.

Boron is an element that is deficient in a very high percentage of soil samples – as in about 90 percent of the time in Iowa and eastern Nebraska.

Part of the reason is that boron carries a negative charge, thus is not strongly attracted to any soil particle. Its plant availability tends to decline in dry soils, thus mass flow movement can be greatly reduced during dry periods during the summer.

The absolute role of boron is still being sleuthed out, but it is often thought as vital in kernel formation in corn production.

The Marschner text lists boron’s other roles in sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, formation of woody tissue, carbohydrate and RNA metabolism, cell respiration and formation of cell membranes.

So, after a fall where stalk strength was about the worst seen would paying attention to a mineral important in forming woody tissue be important? A rational person would have to pay attention to the connection.

I think any person that is reliant on producing healthy crops that will best be able to remain profitable may have to make the decision to spend $60 on the Petra Marschner text and read the first 270 pages to be much better prepared in designing a fertility program.

Over the course of their farming career their fertilizer expenses will be one of their biggest dollar items. Thus knowing which elements are important and why can help them immeasurably.

Seed decisions

By now many reps have stopped by to visit about seed choices. Making decisions is tougher than it used to be as there are more changes in a short time period than there used to be.

The old seedsman rules of trust multi-year, multiple-site data is more difficult as hybrid life cycle is much shorter and even new products get eliminated quicker.

Does that mean that all of the new varieties are improved? It should, but because varietal performance is always genetics by environment, and we seem to get wider climate swings, we seem to make decisions based on the last season because no one can tell us what next year’s weather is going to be like.

Thus switching percentages among proven and new hybrids seems to be the best methods.

Many recent one-year wonders seem to have flashed out for that problem.

Here’s wishing you the best over the next few months of decision-making.

Bob Streit is an independent crop consultant and columnist for Farm News. He can be reached at (515) 709-0143.

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